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One of the basic financial planning tools available to steward leaders and their organizations is a budget. Yet, in many cases, this planning tool, in the wrong hands, becomes a tool for power and control. Part of this is because of the way in which many organizations conduct their budget process. Often, this is a zero-sum game that pits departments and colleagues against one another. This is particularly true in the nonprofit and faith-based sectors, although it can be true in any corporate environment.
Good steward leadership of financial role differentiation can help reclaim the budget as a planning tool for organizational excellence, and can help to provide innovative, creative solutions to fiscal challenges. Over and over again, I have seen decision-makers at the highest organizational levels request for the wrong kinds of budgetary documents to be set before them for the wrong kinds of approval, leading to confusion, frustration, and conflict. Some executives and managers request stacks and stacks of numbers from their subordinates and from the "financial people," with no clear object in mind as to what will be approved and what will not be. Others just want a summary of the same data, but still without the clarity as to what they are really looking for. In some government-funded or subsidized institutions, if a department does not spend its entire allotment in a particular fiscal year, it receives less the next year, automatically. This leads to many leaders cramming purchases and salaries in to the last few months or weeks of the cycle to inflate their numbers so they will have more to work with the next year. This could hardly be considered strategic planning.
In many enterprises that can be considered institutions, this budget process is so painful for all involved that it leads to a second problem: no one wants to make adjustments to the existing plan until the next pre-ordained cycle. This can create two divergent results: first, there is the rigidity of binding people and projects to a budgetary plan that no longer makes sense, given actual conditions. Some of this may be due to mismanagement of the plan by a subordinate, but in many cases, it is just due to the fact that no plan is perfect, ever, and things change. The second divergent result is that of more or less ignoring the existing budget plan (or parts thereof), and just plowing on ahead, hoping the black ink balances out the red in the end of the cycle. And, depending on available assets, cash flow and dumb luck, sometimes it works out.
Financial role differentiation can help reclaim budgets as a planning tool that helps organizations implement their overall strategy and achieve their goals with excellence. Innovative budgeting presses decision-making as close to the actual work as can be reasonably attained, particularly when broad, proscriptive (as opposed to prescriptive) policies and orders have been created ahead of time. These proscriptive policies begin at the highest levels, and essentially set the process up for approval from the beginning.
While the bookkeepers and accountants will need to tie each budget line item to a specific account number, typically the strategic people will not need to see that. They will, instead, need to see that the trends are working toward the goals and where they need to adjust big-picture items to keep things moving forward. Management leaders will then spend time helping departments and projects keep financial pace. And procedural roles will have clarity where everything goes.
It helps when the whys and wherefores of the overall strategy penetrate deeply into the organizational structure. This can help people with individual budgetary needs and desires to work inside a bigger picture than their project, department, or group.
Design Group International's Financial Services Roles Tool can help differentiate these procedural, management, and strategic roles as they must interact to produce a financial plan. Once a plan (budget) is in place, they can continue to work together to make adjustments to respond to opportunities and challenges as they develop. The tool is free, and it can help show where different roles fit, and thus what kind of approach to budgets and planning they may need to take.
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